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Maddison Project

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! Item !! Value
|-
| Start date || March 2010 for the explicit Maddison Project<ref name=official-website/><br/>1960s for the original work by [[contributor::Angus Maddison| ]]Angus Maddison that was the genesis of the project.<ref name=maddison-project-2013-update>{{cite web |url=http://www.ggdc.net/maddison/maddison-project/publications/wp4.pdf |title=The First Update of the Maddison Project Re-Estimating Growth Before 1820 |first1=Jutta |last1=Bolt |first2=Jan Luiten |last2=van Zanden |date=January 2013 |accessdate=October 3, 2017}}</ref>{{rp|3}}
|-
| Data versioning || Only one update released as Maddison Project, published January 2013 with data till 2010.<ref name=maddison-project-2013-update/><ref name=maddison-project-2013-data>{{cite web |url=http://www.ggdc.net/maddison/maddison-project/data/mpd_2013-01.xlsx |title=The Maddison Project 2013 data|date = January 1, 2013|accessdate = October 7, 2017}}</ref><br/>Multiple versions by Angus Maddison, the last of which was published in February/March 2010.<ref name=angus-maddison-2010-update>{{cite web|url = http://www.ggdc.net/maddison/Historical_Statistics/BackgroundHistoricalStatistics_03-2010.pdf|title = Background notes on "Historical Statistics" in www.ggdc.net/Maddison|date = March 1, 2010|accessdate = October 7, 2017|}}</ref>
|-
| Focus || Historical: identify general ballparks and trends in living standards and economic growth over long time periods.<br/>Provide better insight into the timeline of the [[Great Divergence]] between Western Europe and other regions that were historically similarly situated, such as China and India.
! Version !! Formats available !! Year of publication !! Month of publication !! Most recent year till which data is present !! Dimensions (inputs) !! Metrics (outputs)
|-
| Maddison 2010 (version published at start of Maddison Project)<ref name=angus-maddison-2010-update/> || Excel spreadsheet, both horizontal (years are columns)<ref name=angus-maddison-2010-data-horizontal>{{cite web|url = http://www.ggdc.net/maddison/Historical_Statistics/horizontal-file_02-2010.xls|title = Horizontal file|date = February 1, 2010|accessdate = October 7, 2017}}</ref> and vertical (years are rows)<ref name=angus-maddison-2010-data-vertical>{{cite web|url = http://www.ggdc.net/maddison/Historical_Statistics/vertical-file_02-2010.xls|title = Vertical file|date = February 1, 2010|accessdate = October 7, 2017}}</ref> || 2010 || March (for explanatory note), February (for data) || 2008 for GDP and GDP per capita<br/> 2009 for population; also 2030 projections for population || Country (or geographical region) and year || Population, real GDP, real GDP per capita, population growth, real GDP growth, real GDP per capita growth
|-
| Maddison 2013 (first update by Maddison Project)<ref name=maddison-project-2013-update/> || Excel spreadsheet, only vertical (years are rows)<ref name=maddison-project-2013-data/> || 2013 || January || 2010 || Country (or geographical region) and year || Real GDP per capita
The data presented in the Maddison Project database is a partial function where:
* The inputs (the dimensions) are region (usually, country ) and year.
* The metrics include:
** Population: Included in
==== Year dimension ====
While calendar years are the finest granularity at which data is presented, not all calendar years have data. Here is a description of how the granularity changes over time. Note that we count an a year is present if there is data for at least one country for that year.<ref name=maddison-project-2013-data/><ref name=angus-maddison-2010-data-vertical/>
{| class="wikitable sortable" border="1"
! Year range !! Data granularity for Maddison 2010 (data till 2008) !! Number of regions with data in Maddison 2010 !! Data granularity for Maddison 2013 (data till 2010)|| Number of regions with data in Maddison 2013
|-
| 2009 to 2010 || Not present || 0 || Every year|| 137
|-
| 1820 1993 to 2008 || Every year || 181 || Every year|| 182
|-
| 1800 1991 to 1819 1992 || Not present Every year || 181 || Every year|| 179
|-
| 1700 to 1799 1990 || 1700 (only one Every year) || 1700, 1725, 1750, 1775181 || Every year || 183
|-
| 1400 1974 to 1699 1989 || 1400, 1500, 1600 (once every 100 years) Every year || 1400, 1450, 1500, 1550, 1600, 1650 (once every 50 years)157 || Every year || 165
|-
| 1973 || Every year || 172 || Every year || 180|-| 1952 to 1972 || Every year || 157 || Every year || 165|-| 1950 to 1951 || Every year || 157 || Every year || 158|-| 1820 to 1949 || Every year || Variable || Every year || Variable|-| 1801 to 1819 || Not present || 0 || Every year || Variable (5 to 7)|-| 1700 to 1800 || 1700 || 42 || 1700, 1725, 1750, 1775, 1800 || Variable (4 to 18)|-| 1400 to 1699 || 1500, 1600 (once every 100 years, but not 1400) || 42 and 39 || 1400, 1450, 1500, 1550, 1600, 1650 (once every 50 years) || Variable (4 to 9)|-| Before 1400 || 1, 1000 || 41 and 39 || 1, 730, 1000, 1150, 1280, 1300, 1348|| Variable (5 to 16)
|}
==== Country Region dimension ====
The country region dimension includes most modern countries, but also includes historical countries (such as the former USSR) and regions within countries (such as centre-north Italy) for which it is easier to get historical data than their modern country equivalents. The working paper says:<ref name=maddison-project-2013-update/>
{{quotation|A related issue is that historical estimates often refer to different territorial entities than the countries within the borders of 1990, the basic unit of account used in the Maddison framework. He made many corrections for (minor) changes in borders (an overview will be provided in future work). However, moving back in time sometimes means that we have only estimates for Northern Italy (instead of Italy as a whole), for Holland (Netherlands) or for the Cape Colony (South Africa). When those smaller regions represented less than two-third of the population and/or the GDP of the modern country (within current borders), we have presented the estimates in italics to warn users.}}
==== Other information ====
As mentioned in connection with the country region dimension, italics and bold are used for some cells.
Notes are added for some estimates, that are visible by hovering over the cell in spreadsheet software. A triangle at the top right of a cell indicates that there are notes for that cell.
Although the working paper mentioned that the estimates ''should'' would be color-coded (see [[#Accuracy and precision]]), this color-coding does has not seem to show up been implemented in Google Sheets or Mac's Numbers software (it might show up only in Excel)the data.
=== Caveats ===
==== Completeness ====
Data is not present for every combination of country and year. This could be because of the absence of reliable sources that could be used to construct the data. See the table above (in [[#Year dimension]]) for more information on completeness.
Data on former countries continues to be calculated for years after that country ceases to exist as a geopolitical entity.
==== Accuracy and precision ====
Data is fairly inaccurate and imprecise, with the accuracy and precision getting worse the farther back in time we go, and also varying significantly across geographical regions. However, the database does not provide error bars or any other explicit quantification of uncertainty.
The working paper uses [[Steve Broadberry's classification of data sources]], listing four broad types of data sources in decreasing order of reliability, along with the color coding that should show up in the database.<ref name=maddison-project-2013-update/>{{rp|54}} Unfortunately, the color coding does was not seem to show up implemented in Mac's Numbers or in Google Sheetsthe dataset.<ref name=maddison-project-2013-data/>
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
Maybe something about the purchasing power parity marking China as too expensive?<ref name=maddison-right>{{cite web|url = http://www.ggdc.net/maddison/maddison-project/publications/wp7.pdf|title = What Makes Maddison Right?|author = Jan Luiten van Zanden|author2 = Debin Ma|date = September 1, 2017|accessdate = October 5, 2017}}</ref>
 
==== Differences between versions ====
 
Both the 2010 version and the 2013 version use 1990 international dollars for the GDP per capita estimate, so the numbers are comparable between the versions.
 
{{fillin}}
==Data sources==
|-
| [[Bill Gates]]<ref name=gates-guardian>{{cite web|url = https://www.theguardian.com/business/economics-blog/2013/may/08/measuring-growth-gdp-africa|title = Bill Gates: how GDP understates economic growth. GDP may be an inaccurate indicator in sub-Saharan Africa, which is a concern for those who want to use statistics to help the world's poorest people|last = Gates|first = Bill|authorlink = Bill Gates|publisher = ''[[The Guardian]]''|date = May 8, 2013|accessdate = October 3, 2017}}</ref> || Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation || Smart well-read person || Mostly echoes Jerven
|-
| Max Roser<ref>{{cite web |url=https://ourworldindata.org/economic-growth#data-sources |publisher=Our World in Data |title=Economic Growth § Data Sources |year=2017 |accessdate=October 21, 2017}}</ref> || ''Our World in Data'' || Economist || Lists the database as one of the data sources for GDP.
|-
| [[Paul Krugman]]<ref>{{cite web|url = https://krugman.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/04/26/debt-and-growth-data/|title = Debt and Growth Data|last = Krugman|first = Paul|authorlink = Paul Krugman|date = April 26, 2013|accessdate = October 3, 2017|publisher = ''[[New York Times]]''}}</ref> || New York Times || Economist, columnist || Data source for historical debt, growth, and labor output and productivity data.
==Usage in debates==
 
https://www.google.com/search?q=site%3Aeconlog.econlib.org%20%22maddison%22
 
https://www.google.com/search?q=site%3Amarginalrevolution.com%20%22maddison%22
== See also ==
* ''[[The World Economy: Historical Statistics]]'', a 2004 book by Angus Maddison that is an early precursor of the work done by the Maddison Project
* [[Angus Maddison statistics of the ten largest economies by GDP (PPP)]]
 
== External links ==
 
* [http://www.ggdc.net/maddison/maddison-project/home.htm Official website]
== References ==
{{reflist|30em}} == External links ==Note: For references to papers, a page number is included after the reference number in the original text. This page number is the page number as labeled on the page, rather than the page number in the PDF (these could differ due to the presence of a cover page).
* {{official websiteReflist|http://www.ggdc.net/maddison/maddison-project/home.htm30em}}

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